“Targeting bore little resemblance to reality in that the sequence of attacks was uncoordinated and the targets were approved randomly - even illogically. The North's airfields, which, according to any rational targeting policy, should have been hit first in the campaign, were also off-limits.”(Earl Tilford, US Air Force historian)The Vietnam War could have been called a comedy of errors if the consequences weren’t so deadly and tragic. In 1951, while war was raging in Korea, the United States began signing defense pacts with nations in the Pacific, intending to create alliances that would contain the spread of Communism. As the Korean War was winding down, America joined the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, pledging to defend several nations in the region from Communist aggression. One of those nations was South Vietnam. The seeds of Operation Rolling Thunder, America’s elaborately constrained air war against North Vietnam, appeared almost from the first moment that the USA inherited the conflict from the French. The half-communist, half-nationalist Viet Minh rebels of Ho Chi Minh evicted the French in 1954, but not before the latter partially created an anticommunist state, South Vietnam, in the lower half of the nation. Home to many Vietnamese who stood to lose property and potentially their lives in the event of the country’s reunification, the new state struggled with both Viet Cong guerrillas supplied by the north and its own internal corruption and factionalism. Many thousands of North Vietnamese fled there to escape Ho Chi Minh’s repression and occasional mass executions as well.Faced with such a determined opponent, skilled in asymmetrical warfare and enjoying considerable popular support, the Americans would ultimately choose to fight a war of attrition. While the Americans did employ strategic hamlets, pacification programs, and other kinetic counterinsurgency operations, they largely relied on a massive advantage in fire 1. Language: English. Narrator: Gregory T. Luzitano. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/163947/bk_acx0_163947_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Research Paper (undergraduate) from the year 2012 in the subject Economics - Finance, grade: A+, , course: Advanced Social Work Policies, language: English, abstract: An in depth analysis of proposed policy to effectively address the monetary governance and taxation in the United States. This analyse is of the Family and Business Tax Cut Certainty Act of 2012 is a critical assessment of both proponent and opponent views as well as proposals for the passing and implementation of comprehensive tax policy.
Seminar paper from the year 2012 in the subject History Europe - Other Countries - European Postwar Period, grade: 1, University of Vienna (Institut für Zeitgeschichte), course: "Hammer and Tickle"- A History of Communist Europe Told Through Communist Jokes, language: English, abstract: In the Soviet Union, sport was an important part of everyday life, aiming to increase the health of the citizens and to make them fit for work. However, sport was controlled by the state and used as a major force to show the advantages of the communist ideology over capitalism. In the framework of the Cold War where the existence of two hostile world powers, the Soviet Union and the United States of America, were confronting each other, sports became an obvious field for international competition and for defeating the ideological opponent. In this paper, it will be examined why sports gained more and more popularity in everyday life and how it was used as political force. The impact of policy will be shown on the specific example of ice hockey, one of the most popular sports on both sides of the Iron Curtain. In other words, it will be outlined how sport lost its innocence and became serious fun, a kind of weapon to wage war.
Crisis is a volatile situation replete with multiple threats. Still every crisis varies from the other. The decision-making procedure may also be different to deal with the crisis according to its requirement. Pakistan, like other states has faced several such crises. Interestingly, most of the said situations were with India. This book envisages a study of four crises, between Pakistan and India. These include the crisis evolving out of the minority issue of 1950, the Brasstacks crisis of 1986- 87, the crisis due to the nuclear tests in 1998, and the Kargil crisis of 1999. Out of these, one (1950) was in consequence of British policy, two (1986-87 and 1998) precipitated as a result of Indian actions, and one (1999) was an outcome of Pakistani actions. This study has vital importance to assess and analyze these crises situations. The detailed study in the theoretical frame work of crisis'' and crisis decision making'', has established the fact that it is essential for a nuclear power, when pitched against an opponent, to behave in such a compact way that lacks no theoretical, rational, and favorable aspect of any issue, while making a decision.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. The United States presidential election of 1936 was the most lopsided presidential election in the history of the United States in terms of electoral votes. In terms of the popular vote, it was the third biggest victory since the election of 1820, which was not seriously contested. The election took place as the Great Depression entered its eighth year. Incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt was still working to push the provisions of his New Deal economic policy through Congress and the courts. However, the New Deal policies he had already enacted, such as Social Security and unemployment benefits, had proven to be highly popular with most Americans. Roosevelt''s Republican opponent was Governor Alf Landon of Kansas, a political moderate.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! The 1964 Gabon coup d'état was staged between 17 and 18 February 1964 by Gabonese military officers who rose against Gabonese President Léon M'ba. Before the coup, Gabon was seen as one of the most politically stable countries in Africa. The coup resulted from M'ba's dissolution of the Gabonese legislature on 21 January 1964, and during a takeover with few casualties 150 coup plotters arrested M'ba and a number of his government officials. Through Radio Libreville, they asked the people of Gabon to remain calm and assured them that the country's pro-France foreign policy would remain unchanged. A provisional government was formed, and the coup's leaders installed Deputy Jean-Hilaire Aubame, who was M'ba's primary political opponent and had been uninvolved in the coup, as president. Meanwhile, M'ba was sent to Lambaréné, 250 kilometres (155 mi) from Libreville. There was no major uprising or reaction by the Gabonese people when they received word of the coup, which the military interpreted as a sign of approval.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Rudolf I of Bavaria (German: Rudolf I., Herzog von Bayern, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, October 4, 1274 August 12, 1319), a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty, was Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine (1294 1317). Rudolf was the son of Louis II, Duke of Upper Bavaria, and Matilda, a daughter of King Rudolph I. Rudolf was born in Basel. He succeeded his father in 1294 and supported his father-in-law king Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg against his uncle, the Habsburg Albert of Austria. After Adolf's death Rudolf joined Albert's party but the strong dynastic policy of the new king caused a new conflict. Since Albert put pressure on Rudolf he had to accept his younger brother Louis IV as co-regent in 1301. After Albert's assassination in 1308 Rudolf voted for Henry of Luxemburg and then accompanied the new king to Italy. A civil war against his brother Louis IV due to new disputes on the partition of their lands was ended in 1313, when peace was made at Munich. Louis IV was elected German king in 1314 but Rudolf had voted for his opponent Frederick of Austria.
Of the hundreds of books written about John F. Kennedy, none have yet taken the full measure of the role that Theodore Sorensen played in shaping his presidency. Serving as President Kennedy's speechwriter from 1952 until 1963, Sorensen was a key advisor in the White House and a gatekeeper of the Kennedy legacy in the years after his assassination. This book presents a compelling portrait of Sorensen's life and place in the American political landscape. He became an outspoken critic of corruption in politics, a vocal opponent of the militarist foreign policy approach that successive administrations adopted, and an advisor to Democratic presidential candidates such as Robert F. Kennedy and Barack Obama. Taking up questions about the role of presidential advisors and the concept of public service, an ideal that was central to the most famous of the speeches that Sorensen wrote for President Kennedy, Michelle A. Ulyatt offers new insight into Sorensen's influence on the Kennedy years and the generation of leaders who came after.
This book offers a collection of texts by Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker (1912-2007), a major German universal scientist who was also a pioneer in physics, philosophy, religion on issues of politics and peace research. He worked with Werner Heisenberg and Otto Hahn in the German "Uranverein", obtained a patent for plutonium during World War II and was an opponent of the nuclear armament of the German armed forces (1957). Furthermore, he published a study on the inability to defend Germany (1971) that was instrumental in the debate on defensive defense since the mid 1970s. He wrote on war and peace, peace and truth, policy implications of nuclear energy, on ethical issues of modern strategy, on consequences of war and war prevention and on the theory of power. He coined the term "world domestic policy" which still covers a valid theory for political, institutional secured world peace in the atomic age.