Seminar paper from the year 2014 in the subject Economics - International Economic Relations, grade: 1,7, Pforzheim University, language: English, abstract: This paper is about negotiations and the game theory. Negotiation has been since ever omnipresent. It can confront us in our daily life, for example the question who is doing the dishes today or in much more complex is-sues, such as in economics or politics. "Simply defined, negotiation is the process of attempting to get what one wants, through agreement with one or more other par-ties." There are different tools with which negotiations can be modeled. One of them is game theory. "GAME THEORY aims to help us understand situations in which decision-makers interact. A game in the everyday sense - a competitive activity in which players contend with each other according to a set of rules." According to the definition, game theory is an appropriate tool to apply for negotiations and get the best outcome of it. It can make it easier for us to analyze our own needs, the least acceptable agreement, and desires, the most desired outcome, but also the ones of our opponent. Consequently, game theory allows us to estimate the strategy the other party is going to use. Moreover, game theory reaches back far in history. There had been recognized some game theoretic situations even in the bible. But the major development started in the 1920s. First, game theory was a mathematic discipline. The two mathematicians, John von Neumann and Emile Borel worked on game theory and subsequently the book Theory of games and economic behavior was published by von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern in 1944. Later, in the 1950s, game theory was not only considered to be a mathematician discipline, but it has been also applied in "economic theory and political science, and psychologists began studying how human subjects behave in experimental games."
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. William Fritz Afflis (June 27, 1929 November 10, 1991), best known as Dick the Bruiser, was an American football player and professional wrestler. In the late ''50s, Dick the Bruiser wrestled live every Thursday on TV in the Detroit area. His typical opponent was "an up and coming young (unknown) wrestler" who would be pulverized by the Bruiser. His matches and interviews were so effective he became a household name in the Detroit area. His only defeat on live TV was at the hands of Cowboy Bob Ellis. However, in two rematches with Ellis at the Olympia in Detroit, the Bruiser was victorious. Afflis, along with fellow wrestler and business partner Wilbur Snyder, purchased the Indianapolis NWA promotion in 1964 from its longtime owner Jim Barnett. Afflis renamed the territory the World Wrestling Association (WWA) and promoted himself as its champion. While he ran it as an independent promotion with its own titles and champion, the WWA had a working agreement with the larger AWA (owned by wrestler Verne Gagne), sharing talent and recognizing their championships.
The diplomatic relations between United States of America and Germany go back more than two hundred years, when the then Kingdom of Prussia and United States of America came to an agreement over trade and peace on September 18th, 1785. Subsequently, after the formation of unified German empire in 1871, the two nations have had a mixed relationship, being on opposite sides in both world wars but maintaining trade and exchange of knowledge, technology, students and goodwill before and after the world wars. In recent history, after the reunification of Germany in 1990, United States of America has been one of the closest ally of Germany. However, this transatlantic relationship threatened to change after Donald Trump announced his candidancy for 2016 US presidential elections. The full exchange of his statements with German chancellor Angela Merkel will be presented later in this chapter, but as early as October 2015, Donald Trump had started attacking German leader. His full quote of "I always thought Merkel was this great leader. What she's done in Germany is insane" was followed by comparing German chancellor to his opponent Hillary Clinton.
The book explores the politics and antagonisms of Irish nationalism in the 20th century from the struggle for independence and the consolidation of statehood, through 30 years of violence to the low intensity peace brokered by 1998 Good Friday Agreement. The book examines the enduring tension within mainstream nationalism between the irredentist rhetoric of nationhood and the practical politics of governing a 26-county state. It traces the challenges posed by those who went beyond the rhetoric, and deployed violence to undo this consensus. With the irruption of the 'Troubles' from 1968 there emerged a stark contrast between nationalisms north and south. Nationalism in Northern Ireland remained quite distinct from its counterpart in the South, the product of conflict within a separate entity. The Peace Proces that closed the turbulent century has not banished the antagonistic dimension of the political, but has put in place durable institutions to defuse violent antagonisms so that the adversary might no longer be seen as an enemy but recognised as a legitimate opponent.
The author's thesis statement was, "Modelling the strength of relationships between agents and predicting the behaviour of trading partner agents in a multi agent argumentation system enables agents to build trusted trading partnerships". To develop a relationship aware argumentation system, the following research questions are addressed. How does an agent specify needs and which enactments (i.e., products and services) satisfy the specified needs?, Which opponent agent does an agent select to interact with in an attempt to satisfy a given need?, How does an agent interact (i.e., negotiate) with an opponent agent hopefully to reach an agreement?, How does an agent perform the enactment of a signed commitment, and how does an agent evaluate the enactment that satisfies its needs?, How and when does an agent analyze interaction history, exchanged information and any promises made to predict its opponent agent's behaviour?, How does one integrate the answers to the above five research questions into a complete system? Addressing the above questions, the author presented an argumentation system that enables trading agents to build trusted trading partnerships through argumentation.
In chess, a draw by (mutual) agreement is the outcome of a game due to the agreement of both players to a draw. A player may offer a draw to his opponent at any stage of a game, if the opponent accepts, the game is a draw. The relevant portion of the FIDE laws of chess is article 9.1. The vast majority of drawn chess games at the amateur club/tournament level and higher are draws by mutual agreement rather than the other (technical) ways a game can be drawn (stalemate, threefold repetition, fifty-move rule, or impossibility of checkmate) (Schiller 2003:26-27). The FIDE laws state that a draw should be offered after making the move and before pressing the game clock. Draws made at any time are valid, however. If a player makes a draw offer before making their move, the opponent can ask them to make their move before deciding. Once made, a draw offer cannot be retracted, and is valid until rejected. A draw may be rejected either verbally or by making a move (thus the offer is nullified if the opponent makes a move).
Your Best Approach to Determining Value If you're buying, selling, or valuing a business, how can you determine its true value? By basing it on present market conditions and sales of similar businesses. The market approach is the premier way to determine the value of a business or partnership. With convincing evidence of value for both buyers and sellers, it can end stalemates and get deals closed. Acclaimed for its empirical basis and objectivity, this approach is the model most favored by the IRS and the United States Tax Court-as long as it's properly implemented. Shannon Pratt's The Market Approach to Valuing Businesses, Second Edition provides a wealth of proven guidelines and resources for effective market approach implementation. You'll find information on valuing and its applications, case studies on small and midsize businesses, and a detailed analysis of the latest market approach developments, as well as: * A critique of US acquisitions over the last twenty-five years * An analysis of the effect of size on value * Common errors in applying the market approach * Court reactions to the market approach and information to help you avoid being blindsided by a litigation opponent Must reading for anyone who owns or holds a partial interest in a small or large business or a professional practice, as well as for CPAs consulting on valuations, appraisers, corporate development officers, intermediaries, and venture capitalists, The Market Approach to Valuing Businesses will show you how to successfully reach a fair agreement-one that will satisfy both buyers and sellers and stand up to scrutiny by courts and the IRS.
Arab involvement in the Jewish-Palestine conflict had started during the late 1930s, but it was only in the wake of the UN Partition Resolution of 29 November 1947 that active military intervention was considered. The Arab League tried to form a unified army that would prevent the implementation of the Partition Resolution, but failed. In Egypt, the government and the army opposed the idea of dispatching an expeditionary force to Palestine, but the pressure of public opinion and King Farouq's insistence carried the day. The order was given and in May 1948, Egyptian forces crossed the international border with Palestine. The author analyses the reasons for the decisive victory enjoyed by Israel over a larger opponent; and the successes and failures that were sealed in the Egyptian-Israeli General Armistice Agreement signed in Rhodes in March 1948.
Your Best Approach to Determining Value If you're buying, selling, or valuing a business, how can youdetermine its true value? By basing it on present market conditionsand sales of similar businesses. The market approach is the premierway to determine the value of a business or partnership. Withconvincing evidence of value for both buyers and sellers, it canend stalemates and get deals closed. Acclaimed for its empiricalbasis and objectivity, this approach is the model most favored bythe IRS and the United States Tax Court-as long as it's properlyimplemented. Shannon Pratt's The Market Approach to ValuingBusinesses, Second Edition provides a wealth of provenguidelines and resources for effective market approachimplementation. You'll find information on valuing and itsapplications, case studies on small and midsize businesses, and adetailed analysis of the latest market approach developments, aswell as: * A critique of US acquisitions over the last twenty-fiveyears * An analysis of the effect of size on value * Common errors in applying the market approach * Court reactions to the market approach and information to helpyou avoid being blindsided by a litigation opponent Must reading for anyone who owns or holds a partial interest ina small or large business or a professional practice, as well asfor CPAs consulting on valuations, appraisers, corporatedevelopment officers, intermediaries, and venture capitalists,The Market Approach to Valuing Businesses will showyou how to successfully reach a fair agreement-one that willsatisfy both buyers and sellers and stand up to scrutiny by courtsand the IRS.