Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. In the game of chess, prophylaxis ("prophylaxis," guarding or preventing beforehand) or a prophylactic move is a move that stops the opponent from taking action in a certain area for fear of some type of reprisal. Prophylactic moves are aimed at not just improving one''s position, but preventing the opponent from improving their own. Perhaps the most common prophylactic idea is the advance of the rook pawn to avert the possibility of back rank mate. In a more strategic sense, prophylaxis leads to a very positional game, often frustrating for players with a strong tactical orientation. Players who play in the prophylactic style prevent the initiation of tactical play by threatening unpleasant consequences. One of the largest advantages of this approach is that it keeps risk to a minimum while causing an overaggressive opponent to lose patience and make a mistake. The disadvantage is that it frequently fails against an opponent who is content with a draw.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. The guillotine choke is a chokehold in martial arts and wrestling applied from in front of the opponent. The choke involves using the arms to encircle the opponent's neck in a fashion similar to a guillotine. The technique is either a type of tracheal compression restraint (wind choke) that prevents air flow to the lungs, or a blood choke depending on how it is applied. When executed from the ground, the person applying it will try to control the opponent by the hips, for instance using a closed guard. This is done to prevent the opponent from escaping the hold, and to be able to apply additional pressure by extending the hips. It's a very effective maneuver when performed correctly.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Offside is Law XI in the publication Laws of the Game written by the IFAB and published by FIFA. The law states that, if a player is in an offside position when the ball is touched or played by a teammate, he may not become actively involved in play. It is not an offense to merely be in an offside position. A player is in an offside position if he is in his opponents' half of the field and is nearer to his opponents' goal line than both the ball and the next to last opponent. The 2005 edition of the Laws of the Game included a new International Football Association Board decision that stated being "nearer to an opponent's goal line" meant that "any part of his head, body or feet is nearer to his opponents' goal line than both the ball and the second-last opponent (the last opponent typically being the goalkeeper). The arms are not included in this definition."
An autonomous sumo robot is able to have a match with another sumo robot, where it is supposed to automatically defend any attack performed by the opponent and trying to push the opponent out of the arena. The developed robot is expected to participate in Singapore Robotic Games 2009, an annual competition for robots from all over Singapore.There are three main stages in the design and development process of the sumo robot. The first stage is the concept and detailed design development. The second stage is the fabrication stage. Then, the final stage is to test the sumo robot and do necessary improvements to make sure that it can perform the intended tasks well.Based on the author s observation on the existing sumo robots, there are two types of them. They are high-speed type and high-torque type.Since this project has limited resources, the author decided to build a hybrid sumo robot, where the motor and processor quality are not that critical. The concept is to build a robot with moderate-speed movement so that it could avoid opponent s attacks and do counter-attacks from the weak sides of the opponent.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! A powerslam is a professional wrestling body slam move in which the wrestler performing the slam falls face-down on top of his/her opponent. The use of the term "powerslam" usually refers to the front powerslam and the scoop powerslam. Innovated by Mitsuharu Misawa and technically known as a sitout side powerslam, this move is performed in which the wrestler lifts the opponent up on his left shoulder like in a front powerslam. The wrestler wraps his right arm around the opponent's neck, and the left arm around the opponent's torso. The wrestler then sits down while flipping the opponent forward to the right side of him, driving the opponent neck and shoulder first into the mat.
The author's thesis statement was, "Modelling the strength of relationships between agents and predicting the behaviour of trading partner agents in a multi agent argumentation system enables agents to build trusted trading partnerships". To develop a relationship aware argumentation system, the following research questions are addressed. How does an agent specify needs and which enactments (i.e., products and services) satisfy the specified needs?, Which opponent agent does an agent select to interact with in an attempt to satisfy a given need?, How does an agent interact (i.e., negotiate) with an opponent agent hopefully to reach an agreement?, How does an agent perform the enactment of a signed commitment, and how does an agent evaluate the enactment that satisfies its needs?, How and when does an agent analyze interaction history, exchanged information and any promises made to predict its opponent agent's behaviour?, How does one integrate the answers to the above five research questions into a complete system? Addressing the above questions, the author presented an argumentation system that enables trading agents to build trusted trading partnerships through argumentation.
A grappling hold is a grappling, wrestling, judo or other martial arts term for a specific grip that is applied to an opponent. Holds are principally used to control the opponent, and to advance in points or positioning. Holds may be categorized by their function such as clinching, pinning, pain compliance or submission, while others can be classified by their anatomical effect: chokehold, joint- lock or compression lock.
The discovery of a novel photoreceptor in the retina that participates in circadian phototransduction (how the retina converts light signals into neural signals) has opened up a new area of investigation. It is still not known whether human circadian phototransduction uses mechanisms similar to color vision, i.e., opponent mechanisms at a post-receptoral level. The primary goal of the study reporter here was to answer the question: does the circadian system respond to light in an additive manner, or is a spectral opponent mechanism also involved? A secondary goal of this work was to determine if the spectral sensitivity of nocturnal melatonin changes throughout the night. The findings in this book are a first step toward a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying circadian phototransduction in humans. The present results demonstrate that an opponent mechanism contributes to the spectral sensitivity to light for human melatonin suppression. In general, retinal stimulation of humans from monochromatic, or nearly monochromatic, light sources might result in data that cannot be generalized to polychromatic sources used in architectural lighting.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Obi Otoshi is one of the preserved throwing techniques, or Habukareta Waza, of Judo. the 1895 Gokyo no Waza lists. A related technique with the same name is also on the Shinyo no Maki list of Danzan Ryu Jujitsu It is categorized as a hand technique, Te-waza. A throw is a martial arts term for a grappling technique that involves off-balancing or lifting an opponent, and tossing them to the ground in Japanese martial arts referred to as nage-waza, , "throwing technique". Throws usually involve a rotating motion and the combatant performing the throw disconnects with the opponent, and ends balanced and on the feet as opposed to a takedown where both finish on the ground. Throws can however also be followed into a top position, in which case the person executing the throw does not disconnect with the opponent. Certain throwing techniques called sacrifice throws (sutemi-waza, , "sacrifice technique") involve putting oneself in a potentially disadvantageous position, such as on the ground, to execute a throw.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. In professional wrestling, a cutter is a common term that refers to the three-quarter facelock bulldog maneuver. The move is also described as an inverted neckbreaker, though it is not one, it only bears an inverted style to it. This move sees an attacking wrestler first apply a three-quarter facelock (reaching back and grabbing the head of an opponent, thus pulling the opponent's jaw above the wrestler's shoulder) before falling backwards (sometimes after running forwards first) to force the opponent face-first to the mat below.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Ude-Hishigi-Te-Gatame is one of the official 29 grappling techniques of Kodokan Judo. It is one of the nine joint techniques of the Kansetsu-waza list, one of the three grappling lists in Judo''s Katame-waza enumerating 29 grappling techniques. A grappling hold (commonly referred to simply as a hold, in Japanese referred to as katame-waza, "grappling technique") is a grappling, wrestling, judo or other martial arts term for a specific grip that is applied to an opponent. Holds are principally used to control the opponent, and to advance in points or positioning.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Unrestricted Warfare is a book on military strategy written in 1999 by two colonels in the People's Liberation Army, Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui. Its primary concern is how a nation such as China can defeat a technologically superior opponent (such as the United States) through a variety of means. Rather than focusing on direct military confrontation, this book instead examines a variety of other means. Such means include using International Law (see Lawfare) and a variety of economic means to place one's opponent in a bad position and circumvent the need for direct military action.